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Rural and Regional Development
Local governments in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) face a number of challenges posed by a constantly changing regulatory framework, and increasing demands for participatory local development and the improvement of public services. These challenges can only be successfully addressed by a local administration staffed with qualified and motivated individuals.
The Reinforcement of Local Democracy (LOD) project, which is funded by the European Union’s Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA), was designed to strengthen inclusiveness, participation and transparency in municipal funding, to emphasise the importance of the role of civil society in local communities and to create long-lasting partnerships between local governments and CSOs. It creates the conditions for competitive project-based approaches to funding disbursement, motivating CSOs to professionalise and become better service providers, acting in accordance with local development strategies.
The Integrated Local Development Project (ILDP), as an integral pillar of the UNDP Rural and Regional Development Sector, provides support to help strengthen local development planning and the realisation of local strategies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The project approach provides a “bridge” between the strategic and budgetary frameworks of local and higher levels of government and also provides assistance to 40 local governments to design their integrated local strategies and to successfully implement them in partnership with their communities.
The name Srebrenica has come to represent all the horrors of war and conjures up images of mass human loss and tragedy. Even today, the region has not fully recovered from the events and destruction, which occurred during the 1992-1995 conflict. As such, Srebrenica and the surrounding region remains one of the most depressed in the country, lagging behind on most indicators.
Rivers do not stop at administrative or political boundaries. The only way to protect and use rivers is therefore through the collaborative efforts of all the stakeholders within the natural geographical river basins.
The role of migration in development, poverty reduction and economic growth is substantial and its benefits affect both the countries of destination and the countries of origin. Specifically, migration contributes to economic growth and development by enhancing any country’s trade, investment and development linkages, including by serving as a channel for development finance (remittances), the transfer of skills and ideas, and the establishment of commercial and cultural networks.
Located in eastern BiH, the Birač region covers geographically coherent territories of Bratunac, Milići, Srebrenica, Šekovići, Vlasenica and Zvornik municipalities. Although it is endowed with abundant natural resources, the region is faced with great development challenges, which stem from the devastating consequences of the 1992-1995 war and thereafter difficult overall socio-economic transition.
Social Inclusion and Democratic Governance
Scaling up Universal Access for Most at Risk Populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (HIV/AIDS Round 9)
HIV/AIDS has had limited impact so far in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) with only 74 reported cases of people living with the disease and currently on antiretroviral therapy. Although the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in BiH is low, the focus on preventing an increase in infection is high. Early identification of the disease enables individuals to take actions that benefit both their own health and public health, and the early treatment of those infected substantially reduces the risk of HIV transmission to others.
Strengthening the DOTS Strategy and Improving the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP), including Multidrug Resistant and Infection Control, in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)
About one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacteria, however only a small proportion of those infected will become sick with TB. Up to 20 million lives have been saved since 1995 through the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) and the Stop TB Strategies. Bosnia and Herzegovina is categorised as having an “intermediate” tuberculosis (TB) burden, with approximately 1,400 new tuberculosis cases reported annually over the last few years and a TB-related mortality rate of 6.8%. The majority of TB patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be cured with TB drugs as part of the standard treatment course, while resistance to those drugs is rare.
Youth unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is estimated at an alarming 60%. The youth unemployment rate has remained close to its 2009 crisis peak with few perspectives for improvement in the near future if the job creation process is not accelerated. BiH also suffers from significant brain drain – especially amongst young people.
The absence of statistical and other data on the extent, nature and characteristics of disabilities in BiH is an obstacle to improving the situation of people with disabilities. There is no central registry for people with disabilities, however it is estimated that people with disabilities constitute nearly fifteen per cent of the population in South East Europe. Currently many public services are not accessible for people with disabilities.
Justice and Security
Project EXPLODE is a follow up to the Small Arms Control and Reduction project carried out by UNDP between 2005-2012. As uncontrolled explosions can cause the displacement of people living near ammunition depots and can have devastating safety and development implications for the local population and, indeed, may result in a humanitarian crisis, it is crucially important to prevent the uncontrolled explosion of old and unstable ammunition. The current project is therefore designed to support the efforts of the Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina by providing training to MoD personnel in the latest and safest ammunition destruction methods.
Access to justice for the poor and marginalised is not guaranteed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, due to a fragmented and poorly developed free legal aid (FLA) system in the country, and the lack of harmonised legislation at the State level. Therefore, free legal aid is only available in a limited number of jurisdictions and, where legislation is in place, governmental free legal aid services are underequipped, understaffed, and lack quality monitoring tools and professional training. In addition, the general public are not aware of their rights on free legal aid services.
In the period 1992-1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was the site of a large-scale armed conflict characterised by systematic and widespread violations of international humanitarian law resulting in the loss of an estimated 100,000 lives. Facing the events from the recent past, especially by combating impunity for war crimes, is recognised as one of the basic preconditions for reconciliation and progress, both internally and externally, for the development of BiH into a democratic and stable country.
Energy and Environment
Bosnia and Herzegovina has significant biomass energy resources, and the rural population in particular is highly dependent on wood for energy. However, despite the large potential for biomass energy, a number of interrelated market barriers – including the limited availability of financing, a lack of business models and management skills, limited information availability and low awareness – combine to restrict the self-sustaining growth of this market.
Awareness on energy efficiency and sustainable energy is still quite low in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Public buildings in BiH use heating systems that 'burn' both energy and public budgets. Recent studies have shown that the building sector consumes 57% of BiH’s total energy (compared to below 40% in EU countries). The average public building uses 220 kWh/m2 annually for heating purposes, an amount categorised as completely energy inefficient, according to the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). It also puts a heavy burden on municipal budgets.
Democratic Economic Governance Securing Access to Water through Institutional Development and Infrastructure
The project is based on the principles of good governance and the human rights based approach whereby issues of insufficient economic governance and poor infrastructure, which preclude duty bearers and service providers from delivering satisfactory water supply services to citizens, are addressed through planning, management, infrastructure and rehabilitation, as well as the active participation of citizens in the decision-making processes in the water sector.
The GREEN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT project aims at the institutionalization of energy management activities within the public sector buildings in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Those activities contribute and are in line with EU directives (Energy Service Directive, EPBD directive), the Energy Community Treaty and BiH’s obligation to report on current energy consumption and energy savings in accordance with Energy Efficiency Action Plans.